Muscle enhancers are steroids typically used by athletes and bodybuilders to increase muscle size and improve athletic performance. They are available in many forms, such as creatine supplements and anabolic androgenic steroids. They have multiple routes of administration, including patches applied to the skin, subcutaneous or intramuscular injections and capsules or pills. Although muscle enhancers provide significant short-term benefits, their use is associated with serious health risks and problems.
Other People Are Reading
According to Lauralee Sherwood in the book "Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems," use of muscle enhancers and anabolic androgenic steroids increases the risk of strokes and heart attacks by increasing the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Use of the substances is also associated in a reduction of HDL (high-density lipoproteins) or "good" cholesterol, increased blood pressure and damage to the heart's physical structure.
According to Sherwood, muscle enhancers cause liver dysfunction by overloading the normal capacity of the liver. Excessive use increases the risk of liver tumours, malignant and benign.
According to Richard B. Birrer, et.al., in the book "Pediatric Sports Medicine for Primary Care," peliosis hepatis, a condition that is manifested in the form of blood-filled cysts in the liver, is attributed to muscle enhancers and other performance-enhancing steroids.
Individuals using muscle enhancers exhibit aggressive and hostile behaviour. According to Normal S. Miller in the book "Principles of Addictions and the Law," muscle enhancers are associated with various behavioural and cognitive effects, including feelings of euphoria, increased intensity and aggressiveness --- also called " 'roid rage."
According to Michelle P. Warren and Naama W. Constantini in the book "Sports Endocrinology," muscle enhancers have antidepressant effects and typically improve the overall mood of women and men.
According to Shannon Miller, et. al., in the book "Principles of Addiction Medicine," users of muscle enhancers are energised, talk faster, sleep less and have more energy than non-users. Excessive users, according to the authors, are found to suffer hallucinations, anxiety, delusions and depression.
According to Joy Hinson, et. al., in the book "The Endocrine System," one of the primary --- and most serious --- side effects of using muscle enhancers is infertility. Muscle enhancers are synthetic-based testosterone, the primary male reproductive hormone, and can have drastic impacts on the male reproductive system. They severely diminish sperm production, reduce sperm count and testosterone secretion, eventually shrinking the testes.
Similarly, androgenic muscle enhancers suppress the natural hormonal production of the ovaries in women. This causes a decrease in the secretion of female sex hormones, menstrual irregularities and the failure to ovulate. Muscle enhancers also reduce the size of women's breasts.
- 20 of the funniest online reviews ever
- 14 Biggest lies people tell in online dating sites
- Hilarious things Google thinks you're trying to search for
- "Sports Endocrinology"; Michelle P. Warren and Naama W. Constantini; 2000 (p. 448)
- "The Endocrine System"; Joy Hinson, Peter Raven and Shern L. Chew; 2007 (p. 74)
- "Principles of Addiction Medicine"; Richard K. Ries, Shannon Miller, David A. Fiellin and Richard Saitz; 2009 (p. 256)
- "Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems"; Lauralee Sherwood; 2009 (p. 282)
- "Principles of Addictions and the Law"; Norman S. Miller; 2010 (p. 301)