Each person is a product of the combination of genetic material that they receive from their mother and their father. While certain traits are inherited from both parents, others come specifically from one side of the family (for example, colour blindness and haemophilia can only be inherited from one's mother). Understanding this science requires complex knowledge of genes, chromosomes and DNA, and scientists are still learning more all the time about how and why certain traits are inherited and where they come from.
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The one thing that is always determined by the genetic material provided from the father is the gender of a child. The eggs produced by a woman's reproductive system only contain X chromosomes. Sperm, on the other hand, can contain either an X or a Y. Whether or not a Y chromosome is present and therefore creates a male foetus is a product of the father's sperm. An exception to this exists, in a rare genetic disorder where the SRY gene which determines the male gender of a foetus is transplanted onto the X gene in a father's sperm.
A trait that some men sadly inherit from their father is a special type of infertility. Men can be infertile for many different reasons, but one cause of the condition is something called "Y Chromosome Infertility." This is a condition caused by missing material within the Y chromosome that a father passes on to his son. The condition makes men unable to create certain proteins needed for healthy sperm cells. This condition can only be inherited from a father because a man cannot get a Y chromosome from his mother.
You might inherit other traits from your father, but it can be more difficult than you might think to identify which parent a given trait comes from. For instance, a tall person with a tall father and a short mother might feel that the height came from the father. But if the mother carries recessive genes that affect factors leading to great height, your own height might be derived from a combination of both parents rather than from your father alone.
A person's blood type is something they inherit partly from their mother, and partly from their father. The blood type that a child inherits is based upon the organisation of dominant and recessive blood types possessed by either parent. The ultimate result is a function of which blood types are naturally dominant in the genetic code over others. Dominance of genes is why some blood types are more rare than others.
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