How to Make a Confused Face on the Keyboard

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Text "emoticons" use keyboard symbols to make pictographs that indicate moods and this thoroughly modern idea may be older than you think. In 1887, shortly after the invention of the typewriter, the American cynic Ambrose Bierce suggested new forms of punctuation including a "single be appended, with the full stop, to every jocular or ironical sentence." The novelist Vladimar Nabokov suggested a similar idea in an interview with the New York Times in 1969. Currently, a computer sciences professor at Carnegie Mellon University named Scott Fahlman believes he invented the smiley face emoticon in 1982.

Type upper case O, period, lower case o (O.o) is the most popular way to indicate that you are confused on a smart phone. All lower case Os (o.o) indicates a blank stare. All upper case (O.O) means shock.

Type star, underdash, star (___) to indicate that you are dazed followed by an alternative version of confused which comprises a colon followed by a dash followed by an upper case S (:-S) when you are dazed and confused.

Type symbols to indicate that you are perplexed, a sibling emotion to confusion, by keying in colon, dash, slash (:-/). And, if you have reached a judgemental age and have grown sentimental for brick phones you can frown your disapproval of emoticons in general by typing colon, dash, left parenthesis (:-().

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