The first thing to do when cleaning a shotgun is to make sure that there isn't a round in the chamber. Find out how to clean single-shot and pump-action shotguns with advice from a gun store owner in this free video on cleaning shotguns.
We have two types today: a single shot, and a pump-action shotgun. We'll start with the single shot shotgun. Number one, again, safety. Point the muzzle in a safe direction, keep your finger off the trigger and open the action. In this case, like that. Make sure there's no round in the chamber, very first thing you do. Now that you've started, you can close it. This particular gun, doesn't have a screw device in here so you can hold it by the barrel, full pressure on this. Forearm comes off. Again, point it in a safe direction, push this lever, barrel comes right off, like that. The easiest way that I know is to use one of these bore snakes. They have a weight on the end of a long string device, and then this is pulled through. Hold it like this, from the breech end, always whenever possible, clean from the breech end. Drop this down like that. It's going to come through here. Pull it, this down like that. It's going to come through here, pull it. Sometimes it's a little hard, rap it around your hand...oop, if you need to. Pull it right through, grab it again. Pull it all the way through. You do that about two times, you can hold that up. You will see an amazing job that's done by these little guys. If you don't have one, you're going to want to use a shotgun rod. They're larger in diameter than a standard cleaning rod. Takes a little heavier, little fatter brush. We have a soft cotton swab that you screw on here. To begin with, screw it right on. We'll take some solvent, douse the end of it with solvent. Again from the breech end, start it in there and push it down through and let it pop out the end. Bring it back through. You're going to want to let that soak. Let that soak for maybe five minutes while you take the swab off. Now you have a brass, copper, stainless bristle brush. Fits the proper calib...proper diameter for the bore. And you shove it all the way down through. Make sure it goes completely through. Pull it completely back. You don't want to reverse directions while you're in the bore. That can ruin your brushes. You might do this ten or twelve times, depending on how much you've shot. You take this guy off at that point in time and then you have your choice of either using a patch holder device, which you take the edge of the patch, slide it through a split, screw this on to the end. Use this to clean out all of the fouling and solvent that's in there. The other choice is buy the proper caliber, what they call a jag. It's a round device with ridges on it. You screw it in tight. There's a point on the end. You put that point directly in the center and you can push that completely through your shotgun. I like the jag better because it's cylindrical and it really does a great job. Pops it out. Does a great job of cleaning in a nice, round, even pressure all through the inside of your bore. Very, very easily done. Once you're done, you take a look down the shotgun. Make sure the bore is clean. You want to look at the end back here. Use your brush. Solvent on the brush. Brush off the ejector. Any area that you see powder fouling, because it will spray around. Take the main portion, again, solvent on this. Brush it off really, really well. And while you're doing that, keep an eye both on the barrel, on the bore, shotgun itself, the receiver. Make sure you don't see any not normal wear marks, sharp edges, pieces that look like they're a lot shinier than they used to be. With the exception of a brand new gun, you're going to have some, but you'll know they're there. On a gun that you've had for a while, you start seeing something like that, there might be something wrong. Look for anything, so don't just do this by roped. Use your eyes, pay attention, scrub it all off, then you're going to use a cloth to wipe all of the solvent and everything that you've brushed off away. Get it as clean as possible. Once you've got that finished, you look it over good, put it back together and the last thing I usually do once I've got it together is take a cloth with a little bit of oil on it and wipe down the entire gun. You might even want to do that before you put that on. Make sure you get a nice, light, thin coat of oil or silicone, all over the metal of your gun. Then you can put it away and wait 'til the next time it's time to go hunting. Do some more clays or birds. Okay, on a pump action shotgun, it's possible, just like the other, to clean it without taking it apart. Number one, open the action. Look inside, make sure it's empty. Once you've done that, you can go ahead and take it apart. They come apart in a variety of ways. This particular one's a Mossberg. There's a screw device here. Once you've loosened this up completely, take her all the way loose. The barrel will come off like that. That's all the farther you really have to take this apart. You can clean the barrel, just like we previously showed you. Use your brush all over inside here. The same device will work great. Either that or your cleaning rod. Brush it, clean it, use good solvent in it. Make sure you've wiped everything out when you're finished. As long as you're careful, you can open the chamber like that. That allows you to get in the chamber much better. Clean down underneath here. Use your eyes. Any place you see powder fouling, something that looks black that shouldn't be black, clean it off. Brush it off. Make sure it stays lubricated. Put it back together the reverse order of how it came apart, wipe it down with that silicone or lightly oiled rag and put her away until you're ready to go again.