The Siberian pine or Pinus sibirica produces nuts that have been used to produce cooking oil in indigenous tribal cultures of Northern Asia, as well as North and Central Americas, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations. Siberian pine nut oil is being investigated for its health benefits. As of November 2010, no scientific evidence has been reported on the dangers of using Siberian pine nut oil.
Siberian pine nut oil is rich in phytosterols, the flavonoids taxifolin and eriodictiol, tocopherols or vitamin E, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, according to the "Journal of Natural Medicines." In general, phytosterols are known for their ability of reducing cholesterol absorption in the human intestine, but there is no scientific evidence that Pinus sibirica specific phytoesterol can significantly lower cholesterol levels. Linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in the oil, can help in the regulation of the immune system, while flavonoids taxifolin and eriodictiol can have anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant actions.
Siberian pine nut oil showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity when orally administrated to rats, according to article published in the "Journal of Natural Medicines." The researchers concluded that Siberian pine nut oil can be potentially used in humans with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. This natural oil also can be used in the development of cutaneous preparations, due to its high physical stability, according to an article published in "Die Pharmazie."
In Siberia, people have gathered nuts of Pinus siberica and other pine trees to eat and make oil since ancient times. Before the introduction of sunflower, and other oils from North-America, pine nut oil was considered a delicacy in Siberia, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, 10 per cent of all hard currency in Russia was based on the pine nut oil trade.