According to the official Rolex website, the company is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. As the worldwide headquarters of Rolex, the Geneva office oversees all aspects of design and production of Rolex watches.
The initial history of Rolex dates back to 1905 when the company, Wilsdorf & Davis, was incorporated in London, England. German watchmaker Hans Wilsdorf began this venture with his brother-in-law David to manufacture wrist watches.
According to the Funding Universe website, Wilsdorf chose the city of London as home to his company's headquarters because at the time, the city was regarded as the economic centre of the world. In 1908, Wilsdorf introduced the brand name "Rolex" (a word he coined) and opened a technical office in Geneva, Switzerland.
Prompted by severe import taxes in England, Hans Wilsdorf moved his entire operation to Geneva, Switzerland in 1919. It was during this time that he also established the company's official name, Montres Rolex S.A.