Urology problems can pertain to both men and women. They can involve the bladder, kidneys, urinary tract, prostate, penis, testes or the urethra. You may have urination difficulties, incontinence or erectile dysfunction. These and more are urological conditions. If you are having urological problems, you should see your doctor or a urologist for diagnosis and treatment.
Incontinence is a condition that women experience where urine may leak, caused by stress (such as sneezing or coughing), urgency, overflow or a reflex. Treatment may involve changes in diet, pelvic-muscle exercises, retraining the bladder, scheduled voiding, medication, electrical-stimulation therapy and in some cases, surgery.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition where the prostate is enlarged. According to the University of California, Los Angeles Health System, it is not cancerous and occurs in at least 50% of the men in America over 50 years of age. If often results in an increase in lower urinary-tract problems. Treatment involves medications and surgery in some cases.
Urinary-tract infections are more common in women than men. They involve a bacterial infection in the urinary tract, usually in the lower part, such as the bladder or the urethra. The symptoms are painful (burning) urination, frequent urination with minimal output, strong urgency to urinate and sometimes blood in the urine. If the infection involves the kidneys, symptoms may include nausea, fever, vomiting, chills and upper-back pain. Urinary-tract infections are treated with antibiotics and increased fluid intake, particularly water and cranberry juice.
Infertility is a condition where a couple fails to conceive in a period of one year without the use of contraceptives. According to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama, the most common causes are ovulation disorder in the woman or azoospermia (no production of sperm cells) and oligospermia (low numbers of sperm cells) in the man. Treatment includes drug therapies, surgery or in vitro fertilisation.
Erectile dysfunction is a condition where a man is unable to have an erection or to maintain it long enough for sexual activity. The most common causes of erectile dysfunction are other conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, kidney disease, neurologic disease, vascular disease and atherosclerosis. Treatment includes medications such as Cialis, Levitra and Viagra. In some cases, surgery may be used to correct the problem.
Other urological conditions include voiding dysfunction (incomplete emptying of the bladder along with urgency and painful urination), urethral syndrome (pain at the urethra with or without urination) and interstitial cystitis (excessive urgency, urination at night and pain in your lower belly or perineum).