There are several benefits in having a factory. Many things people take for granted wouldn't be possible without factories. However, factories also have drawbacks. They can be built close to large cities or small towns. Wherever a factory is developed, it will have both advantages and disadvantages.
Advantages for Towns
Having a factory close to a town will benefit both the local residents and factory in different ways. The locals will have an opportunity to improve their standards of living because the factory will create job opportunities. On the other hand, the factory will benefit from relatively cheap labour because of the readily available workforce and low cost of living. Such a factory will also help in checking rural-to-urban migration as people leave their communities in search of jobs in the urban areas. Other businesses will thrive near the factory as other people satisfy the needs of the factory workers.
Disadvantages for Towns
One of the main drawbacks to having a factory near a town is pollution. Factories generally produce a lot of waste, which could hurt people's health and the environment. This is especially true if the factory uses large amounts of chemicals. Toxic waste may end up polluting the air, water and soil. Pollution also comes in the form noise, which may shatter the relatively peaceful atmosphere in the community. Although there is a strong move toward making factories more environmentally friendly, pollution is still a major concern.
Advantages for Cities
As more people have moved from towns to cities over the years, factories in large urban centres have provided work opportunities. Factories offer both white-collar and blue-collar jobs, catering to workers with different academic backgrounds. Employees who live in the city won't have to travel far to work, which helps them save on transportation costs. People who move to urban centres will need places to stay, which creates an opportunity for others to provide rental apartments.
Disadvantages for Cities
As more people move to urban areas to work in the factories, overpopulation is likely. This can cause more strain on available resources, making life more challenging. Planning a city's infrastructure, such as roads and services, will also be more difficult. This can lead to the rise of slums or other blighted areas.