A heated toilet seat resembles a regular toilet seat in both form and function. As with a traditional toilet seat, the top cover swings down to cover the seat. The seat itself also swings upward. Installation is the same as that of a regular seat: Two bolts attach the seat and cover directly to the toilet body.
While a few heated toilet seats use a material that stores and uses body heat, most models use an electrical current that heats carbon cores positioned throughout the seat. Depending on the maker of your heated toilet seat, either battery power or house electricity (an attached plug goes into an AC outlet) provides the electrical current. You can control the heat with a small remote that is attached to the unit. Some less expensive models lack this feature and heat automatically when either plugged into the wall or when fresh batteries are inserted.
Many heated toilet seats include additional options, including air fresheners that spray either with the press of a button or automatically whenever the toilet seat is closed. The latter works when the seat, on its way downward, flips a small switch on the back of the seat. The seats are constructed out of a combination of plastic, a soft leather-like material (called "pleather") and lightweight foam to protect the user from being burnt by the carbon cores.