Life cycle of poppy flowers

Poppies flower from July to August.

poppy image by Irina Kodentseva from

Heroine, morphine, opium, codeine and poppy-seed bagels--the poppy is used for them all. Part of the scientific family Papaveraseae, the opium poppy is famous for felling Dorothy and her comrades in the Wizard of Oz.

Other members of the poppy family--more than 100 of them--are known more as prolific wildflowers growing in vast fields in sunny terrain.


Poppies have four to six petals.

orange poppy image by saputraoka from

The common poppy is an erect flower, growing up to 3 feet tall. It has few leaves, usually blue-green leaning toward grey, which die as the plant matures. The stems are long and, in some species, covered with hairs. The flowers have bright petals, usually scarlet, orange or red, frequently spotted with black at the base.

  • The common poppy is an erect flower, growing up to 3 feet tall.
  • The stems are long and, in some species, covered with hairs.


Ploughing fields brings poppy seeds to the surface.

poppy field image by Alistair Dick from

The poppy family is indigenous to the northern hemisphere, although it has been cultivated worldwide in temperate climates. Poppies can thrive in many types of soil, as long as it is well-drained. They prefer open, arable fields and sun.

Seed production

Poppies rely on the wind to scatter seeds.

frost poppy image by Pali A from

Most poppy varieties are annual plants, which means that they complete their life cycle from germination to death within one year. They germinate from seeds and, like other annuals, rely on seed production to maintain their populations. The poppy produces large numbers of seed--around 16,500 per plant--and the seeds can live dormant for a long period of time.


The fruit of the poppy will release its seeds when ripe.

poppy heads image by Ales Masner from

When the seeds are exposed to light, they germinate. Poppy seeds germinate in the spring, generally producing flowers by July, although some species yield flowers earlier. As the plant grows, its ovary fills with seeds which are released through valves or pours on the top of the fruit.

Population in Decline

Pesticides have reduced the poppy population.

nachwachsende rohstoffe image by Reiner Wellmann from

Pesticides have taken their toll on the poppy, as on other wildflowers. They are particularly sensitive to toxins but have survived where other plants have not due to the longevity of their seeds.