Types of Shoring in Buildings

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Types of Shoring in Buildings
Shoring is used to temporarily support an unsafe structure. (Cunard Building taken from The Liver Building, Liverpool. image by clue 2305 from Fotolia.com)

Shoring is used in construction to temporarily support an unsafe structure. Shoring is normally used when openings are to be made in a wall or already existing openings are to be enlarged. Shoring is also used when there are cracks in a wall due to unequal settlement of the foundation that must be repaired. Other instances include when there are bulges in the wall and when an adjacent structure must be pulled down. There are several types of shoring.

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Raking Shore

This type of shoring method is used to support walls which have been threatened by excavation or walls that are generally unstable and in danger of falling over. Raking shores are also used to hold facades up while rebuilding is carried out internally. So even though raking shores are defined as temporary support, they may remain for a while as they are used to support unstable walls of vacated buildings. Inclined members, known as rakers, are utilised to give lateral support to walls. Sole plates, needles, cleats, wall plates and bracing are the components which make up a raking shore. Raking shores are constructed in such a way that they rest on the ground and support the building or wall at an angle between 45 and 60 degrees. The angle of the raker is generally determined by site constraints, but a raker that is too steep or shallow will not be effective.

Dead Shores

This method is commonly used in alterations or building repair procedures. In the dead shoring method, steel props are used to support existing walls, roofing and floors while work is carried out to remove walls at a lower level or to form openings. The number of dead shores to be used is determined by the amount of load and the location.

Flying Shores

There are certain situations where a raking shore would not be ideal, such as a where two buildings are in close proximity to each other, and the flying shore may be utilised instead. The flying shore is used to provide temporary support to two parallel walls in a situation where one or both walls show signs of failure. Traditionally, flying shores used to be constructed using timber, but now they can be constructed with steel; however, steel is more commonly used because it can span greater distances than timber. The flying shore is frequently used during construction projects in urban areas.

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