Also known as drawn mild steel, 1018 steel is one of the most widely available and common grades of low-carbon steel. The metal has a simple chemical composition, which keeps production costs low. It is easy to weld and machine, and is often used as a structural steel.
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In terms of chemical composition, 1018 is one of the simplest forms of steel. This simple chemical make-up directly determines the physical and material properties of the steel. It contains carbon (0.14 to 0.2 per cent), manganese (0.6 to 0.9 per cent) with the rest of the steel made of iron. Additionally, like most steels, 1018 contains the impurities sulphur (0.05 per cent maximum) and phosphorous (0.04 per cent max).
The density of 1018 steel is 7.87 g per cubic cm (4.5 oz per cubic inch). It has a Brinell hardness of 131 and a Rockwell B hardness of 73. The ultimate tensile strength of 1018 is 450 MPa and the tensile yield strength is 380 MPa. It has the typical modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa, which is common for most steels.
The electrical resistivity of 1018 is 1.59e-005 ohm cm. The specific heat of the material is .486 joules per gram per degree C (0.116 BTU per lb per degree F). The thermal conductivity of 1018 is 51.9 Watts per meter per degree Kelvin, which is typical for most steels.
Workability and availability
1018 has excellent characteristics for welding and is relatively soft, making it easy to machine. However, with such a low carbon content 1018 cannot truly be hardened. However, it does slightly harden through working the steel cold. It is often used as a material for extruding pipes and tubes, but is also available in sheet and bar form.
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