Developmental psychologist Diana Baumrind made a name for herself in the 1960s with her child care research study. This study allowed her to determine three distinct parenting styles and how these parenting styles affected children. Baumrind's parenting styles have since been updated by a duo of fellow developmental psychologists, E.E. Maccoby and J.A. Martin, resulting in a fourth parenting style being added.
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The authoritative parenting style is one of Baumrind's styles that yields the most positive effects for the child. An authoritative parent gives encouragement and thorough reasoning behind any rules that are set and other preferred methods of discipline that are implemented. This helps the child to understand that they are loved, but they must be punished if they violate these rules. An authoritative parent doesn't place unrealistic restrictions on a child, but simply guides the child by setting positive standards that are enforced with a firm but open, loving hand. When Baumrind studied the children brought up with an authoritative parent, she found them to be happy and self-confident with a positively developed set of social skills. These children were generally even-tempered and able to control their emotions.
The authoritarian parent doesn't allow a child as much freedom to develop as the authoritative parent. Authoritarian parents are generally rigid and try to control and judge their children against an overly strict code of conduct. Independence is not emphasised. The authoritarian parent generally imparts a highly structured set of rules and restrictions on a child. When Baumrind studied the children brought up with an authoritarian parent, she found them to have an overall unhappy disposition. The children appeared to be withdrawn, hostile, anxious and have little control over their own negative emotions. Baumrind's study states that children raised under this parenting style do not often become involved in antisocial activities such as drugs and alcohol due to their fear of punishment.
The permissive parenting style is one in which the child almost seems more like the parent. A permissive parent doesn't impart a sense of discipline on a child, but rather places emphasis on allowing the child to do whatever he wants, regardless of the consequences. A permissive parent generally avoids using the power he has as a parent, and allows a child to basically make the rules without firmly attempting to set the child on a certain path. When Baumrind studied the children brought up under this parenting style, she found them to be stubborn, defiant, rebellious and unable to regulate most of the emotions they faced. Baumrind's studied states that children raised under this parenting style are likely to participate in antisocial behaviours such as using drugs and alcohol.
The neglectful or uninvolved parent simply fulfils a child's physical needs and is completely removed from any emotional or disciplinary guidance. This parenting style generally has the most negative effect on children because they don't receive the attention that they need to develop into a well-rounded adult. Children raised under a neglectful or uninvolved parent often has low self-esteem and are extremely introverted. They appear to have an unhappy disposition about life in general.
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