Africa's rainforests are the second largest in the world, after those of the Amazon. Rain forests cover approximately 20 per cent of Africa, and the largest concentrations of rainforest are in Central Africa. The rainforests in East Africa are not as dense as the Central African forests. Rainforests feature considerable biodiversity, and that includes the trees that make up the rainforests.
Central African Rainforest
The Democratic Republic of the Congo has the largest rainforest in Africa. Trees in the Central African rainforests include the species Alstonia congensis or pattern wood. The Alstonia congensis is a tall forest tree which can grow up to 30 meters in height. They produce numerous, hairy seeds. The name congensis is derived from the natural habitat of the tree, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Another rainforest tree which grows in the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the mahogany tree. The mahogany tree is a large canopy tree that grows in most rainforests around the world. This tree can reach a height of 150 feet, with the trunks sometimes growing more than 6 feet in diameter.
West African Rain Forest Trees
The iroko tree is a tall, teak-like tree that mainly grows in Nigeria and is used to make furniture as a substitute or replacement for teak. The Liberian rainforest contains trees like mahogany, teak, ironwood and walnut. The African oak is a large forest tree found in Liberia and the western part of Ivory Coast. The timber from this tree is durable and is used for things requiring strength, like building bridges and building ships.
The trees in East Africa include the baobab, fever tree, poison arrow tree and the kapok tree. The rainforests in East Africa are located in Tanzania and Kenya. The kapok tree can grow up to 150 feet in height and has smooth, cylindrical trunks. The crown spreads out into an umbrella shape. The kapok is a deciduous tree with pink or white flowers that have five petals. In some parts of East Africa, the trunks of the kapok tree are used to make dugout canoes. The kapok tree is an emergent tree because it towers above most of the other trees in the rainforest, providing a habitat for epiphytes and numerous birds and animals. An epiphyte is a plant that grows on or is attached to another plant or tree but is not a parasite.
The jacaranda and baobab trees are found in South African rainforests in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The baobab is also called the "Tree of Life" because it provides shelter, food and water to animal inhabitants of the African rainforests. Mature trees have hollows, providing a space where creatures can live. The bark is fire resistant and is used to make ropes, while the leaves are used to prepare medicines. The fruit is a good source of vitamin C.
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