If someone is underweight it means that they are not considered to be in a healthy weight range based on their body type, age, gender and height. Although the most common reason for being underweight is malnutrition because of lack of food, some people are underweight as a result of anorexia or bulimia, genetic predisposition, hyperthyroidism, cancer, liver problems, or other diseases or disorders. Physical problems can arise from being underweight.
For women who have issues being underweight, they may have issues with amenorrhoea, which is the absence of menstruation or missed menstrual cycles. Women who do not have a menstrual cycle may also have nipple discharge, migraines, changes in vision and excessive hair growth. A low body weight affects hormonal functions in the body, which halts ovulation.
Being underweight contributes to osteoporosis, which is a bone disease that reduces the body's bone density. This may lead to someone being more prone to fractures and the damage may become irreversible. If someone is underweight, dietary changes and exercises need to be addressed. Medications and supplements may also be prescribed, including vitamin D and calcium. Men and women with a small body frame are at increased risk for osteoporosis because they have less bone bass to draw from during the ageing process, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Being underweight may result in cardiovascular issues and puts a strain on the heart. People who are underweight may have issues with loss of electrolytes and dehydration. Some people may be more susceptible to heart problems, particularly if they have high blood pressure or have lost heart muscle as a result of being underweight.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes may occur in those who are severely underweight. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin. The body needs insulin to process sugar, which is the fuel for human cells.
Anemia is one of the main health problems that occurs in people who are underweight. People with anaemia have a lower number of red blood cells than what is considered normal, which can be caused as a result of a nutritional deficiency. Anemia may cause discomfort in the chest, fatigue and difficulty breathing because of shortness in breath.
Immune System Deficiencies
The body's lack of vitamins can have an impact on the immune system, making people who are underweight more likely to have colds. Nutrition deficiencies can affect how the body metabolises vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, which help protect the body against illness.