How to build wood shelving units

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How to build wood shelving units
Multiple units can be arranged together. (cd shelf image by Michal Ciucias from Fotolia.com)

Wood shelving units can be made in any number of designs. The simplest shelf units have horizontal shelves and vertical sides, like a bookcase. Shelves can be adjustable, removable or fixed. Start with your desired outside dimensions for the unit and then figure how to cut and join the pieces.

Skill level:
Moderately Challenging

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Things you need

  • Wood
  • Saw
  • Square
  • Tape measure
  • Ruler
  • Pencil
  • Glue, screws or nails
  • Furniture clamps
  • 1 by 1 wood strips (for adjustable shelves)

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Instructions

  1. 1

    Choose your wood. Pine is very easy to work with. Hardwoods like oak, cherry or maple will look better if you are going to stain the shelving unit. Choose a 3/4-inch or 1/2-inch thick board stock. Width of shelves is variable, usually about 6 inches minimum and up to 12 inches or more for bookshelves. Try to find boards the correct width so you don't have to end-join or rip the boards to the right width.

    How to build wood shelving units
    Pine is easy to work with and comes in many widths. (old chopping board image by Pomidors from Fotolia.com)
  2. 2

    Plan your outside dimensions. Figure out the outside dimensions for your shelving unit. This will dictate the measurements for the top, bottom, sides and interior shelves. For instance, choose a 4 foot by 4 foot square.

    How to build wood shelving units
    Make all cuts as square as possible. (sawing wood image by Aussiebloke from Fotolia.com)
  3. 3

    Cut the pieces for the outside frame. Make the top and bottom 48 inches (four feet) long. For the sides to be exactly 4 feet high, you have to compensate for the thickness of the top and bottom pieces. Cut the sides 1 1/2 inches shorter than 4 feet (for 3/4" thick boards) so they will fit between the top and bottom. For 1/2" thick boards, cut the sides to 47 inches in length.

    How to build wood shelving units
    If your boards are not the right width, have them ripped to the proper width. (man sawing a piece of wood image by Joann Cooper from Fotolia.com)
  4. 4

    Cut the shelves. These will be 4 feet wide, less the thickness of the two sides. For 3/4" boards, cut the shelves to 46 1/2 inches. For 1/2 inch boards, cut the shelves to 47 inches. Decide how many shelves you want and mark the position for the shelves on the inside of the two sides with a ruler and pencil.

    How to build wood shelving units
    Subtract board thickness for internal pieces. (tape measure image by Alison Bowden from Fotolia.com)
  5. 5

    Assemble the frame. Use clamps and a square to fit the frame together to make sure it fits. Glue, screw or nail the frame together square.

    How to build wood shelving units
    Use long furnture clamps or corner clamps to assemble the unit. (pipe clamp image by dwags from Fotolia.com)
  6. 6

    Add the shelves. Glue, screw or nail the shelves into place along the marks you made. You can make removable shelves by installing horizontal one inch by one inch strips of wood to support the shelves. Add additional strips so you can adjust the shelves later on.

    How to build wood shelving units
    Adjustable shelves are convenient and easy to make. (Bookshelf 8 image by Tomasz Nowicki from Fotolia.com)

Tips and warnings

  • If you are gluing in permanent shelves, it may be easier to glue them at the same time as you assemble the outside frame. Sand all pieces before assembly if you are staining--it is a lot harder to sand the pieces once they are assembled.
  • Always use appropriate protective clothing and glasses when using carpenter's tools, especially power tools.

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