When building a home, particular attention needs to be paid toward the type of ground, such as clay soil, upon which the foundation is laid. Without proper preparation of a construction site, a home could have foundation problems.
The foundation of a home is typically a concrete slab poured over a primed area of ground that serves as the starting area for constructing the subsequent walls and ceilings. The soil beneath the foundation can vary, but clay soil is particularly vulnerable to moisture and the resulting expansion and contraction can damage the concrete.
Foundations built on clay soil have options for keeping it level and free from cracking. A helical pier shores up the foundation by manoeuvring a large screw down into the ground until firmer earth is found. A bracket is then adhered to the screw to allow the foundation to be levelled above. A steel pipe pier works in the same way, except it utilises multiple pipes pushed into the ground for levelling.
Another method employed is called underpinning. This procedure fills in the sunken soil holes beneath a foundation with concrete for foundation levelling.