The heavy breathing, chest pains, tension and sudden lack of confidence in routine athletic performance represent symptoms of anxiety in many athletes when playing sports. At any stage in an athlete's career, whether in Little League or at the Super Bowl, anxiety plagues the mind and if not dealt with properly, affects performance.
The anxiety level experienced by an athlete depends upon varying stress factors such as competition, significance of winning, opponents and personal goals. Even well-trained and experienced athletes encounter stressful situations during a game. The importance lies in understanding how to cope with the internal and external stressors so they do not become the determining factors for success or failure.
Two types of anxiety levels exist. The first kind refers to the cognitive aspect. It deals with the mental state affecting performances such as worry concern angst expectations and inner-dialogue.
The second type of anxiety addresses the emotional component. It manifests itself through feelings such as nervousness and tension.
Anxiety, whether classified as cognitive or somatic, can negatively affect the outcome of performance. Cognitive anxiety affects the mind of an athlete and consumes his thoughts, thus affecting his ability to perform simple tasks such as free-throws in basketball or serving the ball in tennis. Somatic anxiety affects his physical ability to perform by altering his physical state such as increased heart rate or "butterflies in the stomach."
In diagnosing the problem, many sports psychologists analyse various personal and outside factors influencing the athlete. Cognitive approaches include shifting the athlete's state of mind from negative to positive.
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- Competing Under Pressure: State Anxiety, Sports Performance and Assessment. Department of Psychology. Carolina Lundqvist. Stockholm University. 2006
- Journal of Sports Sciences. Stress and Cognitive Functioning in Sport. L. Hardy and J.G. Jones; 1989
- Competitive Anxiety in Sport. R. Martens, R.S. Vealy, and D. Burton. 1990