Fuel entering a vehicle's engine must first pass through the fuel filter, which is a mesh-like screen responsible for filtering out dirt and debris in the fuel. Problems with a vehicle fuel filter can cause a variety of common engine performance problems.
For an engine to run properly, it needs to have a steady supply of fuel. If a fuel filter becomes clogged with dirt or debris, it can significantly impede the flow of fuel into a vehicle's engine. This can cause a variety of engine symptoms, with engine hesitation, or stumbling, being chief among them. Engine hesitation is usually most pronounced when a vehicle is accelerated from a stop.
Rough Engine Idle
An engine that runs rough, or in a jumbled, erratic manner, can be a sign of a fuel filter problem. A rough engine idle can occur when engine combustion is abnormal, a condition that negatively affects engine performance. Abnormal engine combustion can be caused, in part, if a plugged or damaged fuel filter severely limits the flow of fuel into a vehicle's engine. This can severely disrupt normal engine air/fuel mixtures, which can cause poor engine performance and a rough engine idle.
In severe cases, a bad fuel filter can prevent a vehicle from starting. This type of situation generally happens when a fuel filter becomes totally plugged, thereby completing shutting off fuel flow to a vehicle's engine, which prevents a vehicle from starting. A plugged fuel filter is a common cause of a vehicle no-start condition, especially in older vehicles equipped with carburettors.
Poor Low Speed Performance
It is quite common for a vehicle with a dirty fuel filter to run perfectly at high engine speeds but stall and/or hesitate at low engine speeds. This is caused by the differences in fuel flow pressure that exist between high and low engine speeds. During high engine speeds, fuel pump pressure is sufficient to force engine fuel through the obstructed fuel filter and into the engine, allowing normal engine operation. However, at low engine speeds, fuel flow pressure is not strong enough to overcome the fuel filter obstruction, thus causing erratic or poor engine performance.
Vehicle Start-and-Stop Problem
A common sign of a dirty fuel filter is a vehicle that dies out frequently while being driven. This often happens when the flow of fuel through a dirty fuel filter alternates between flowing adequately and becoming momentarily obstructed. The vehicle will run when fuel flow is adequate enough to allow engine operation, but cut out and die when fuel flow becomes totally blocked or severely restricted. The type and amount of debris within the fuel filter, as well as fuel pump strength can contribute to this problem.