Homemade rust removers range from the innocuous, which contain common household ingredients, to the "take extreme caution while using" substances that use potentially dangerous chemicals. It's advisable to first try the homemade rust remover recipes that pose no risk before going on to rust remover remedies that require precautionary measures before use.
Low-risk rust removers
Try using carbonated water to dissolve rust. Fizzy drinks contain carbonic acid that reduces rust deposits.
Sprinkle table salt over rusty areas and squeeze lemon or lime juice on top. Leave the mixture for two to three hours and then scrub with the rind of the fruit.
Mix 1 tsp cream of tartar, 1 cup of borax or baking soda and enough hydrogen peroxide to make a paste. Apply this paste to the rusted area and allow it to sit for 30 minutes. Wipe clean with a damp cloth. Repeat if necessary.
Soak or spray the rusty area with white vinegar and let the acetic acid dissolve the rust. Scrub the vinegar into the area with a scouring pad or brush, apply more vinegar and let it sit for 30 minutes. Wipe clean and repeat as necessary.
Mix borax and lemon juice together, creating a thick paste. Apply to the rusted area and leave for 20 to 30 minutes. Scrub the rusted area with a scouring pad or steel wool. Repeat as necessary.
Combine 1/2 cup of trisodium phosphate with 2 litres of warm water. Soak the rusted area for 15 to 20 minutes. Scrub the area with a bristle brush and repeat as necessary.
Chemical rust removers
Wearing goggles, gloves and a mask, mix one part hydrochloric acid with four parts water. Apply the solution to the rusted area. Brush and rinse thoroughly. Take care using this corrosive acid.
Put on protective gear before mixing a solution comprising 2.5 per cent phosphoric acid, 2.5 per cent muriatic acid and 1 per cent 2-Butoxyethanol. The phosphoric acid turns iron oxide into a blackish, water-soluble compound. The muriatic acid dissolves iron oxide. Butoxyethanol is a component of retail rust removers. Spray or pour the solution on the rusted area in a well-ventilated area that is inaccessible to children and pets. Scrub the area to free it of flakes. Rinse with turpentine to remove any oil and wipe clean. Repeat if necessary.
Cap or cover the solution container and store in a secure place. Rinse the container with water once you've used all of the solution and discard it in the bin or recycle it. Use water to wash away solution residue.
Try electrolysis as a rust-removal method for stubborn and heavily rusted parts. Wearing protective gear in an outdoor area, mix 1/2 to 1/3 cup of baking soda with 20 litres of water in a plastic bucket. Place electrodes in the bucket so that 10 cm protrude above the bucket and clamp them with any type of clamp except copper. Tie electrodes and wire or cables together. Suspend the rusted part so that it hangs in the middle of the bucket but does not touch the bottom and does not touch the electrodes. Use clamps and a length of chain to attach the rusted part to a length of bar and then place the bar across the top of the bucket to suspend the rusted object in the solution. Attach a battery charger, the negative lead to the rusted part and the positive or red lead to the electrode configuration. Turn on the battery charger and watch the rust molecules gravitate to the electrodes. Turn off the charger. Dispose of the iron solution outdoors and wipe down the rusted part and your electrodes with a rag.
Concentrated muriatic acid is highly corrosive and can burn your eyes and skin.
Don't use stainless-steel electrodes for rust removal by electrolysis. The steel produces a hazardous waste that is illegal.
Only try electrolysis outdoors because the hydrogen produced can burn explosively. Be sure that sparks, cigarettes, torches and other sources of flame do not come into contact with your electrolysis project.
Remember to wear gloves, goggles and a mask when working with acids and gases.
Avoid spilling liquid onto the battery charger.
Avoid touching the electrodes or solution while the battery charger is on.