Garrett VNT Turbo products are created by Honeywell Turbo Technologies. The Garrett VNT is a variable nozzle turbine turbocharger. Garrett VNT turbochargers were introduced in 1991 and designed to provide rapid boost response to diesel engines. The VNT turbochargers allow the exhaust gas flow to be constantly varied to keep up with changing speeds and power. At low speeds, the vanes close to increase pressure, and at high speeds, the vanes open to prevent over-boost. There are four different types of VNT turbochargers: the first generation VNT, Slidevane VNT, DutyDrive VNT, and the third generation VNT.
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First Generation VNT
The first generation VNT created high air density to allow more fuel to be injected into the engine with the same air-fuel ratio. This process greatly improved the overall fuel consumption by the turbocharger. It also managed to increase performance and decrease harmful fuel emissions.
The Slidevane VNT has all the characteristics of the first generation VNT. The Slidevane VNT uses a mobile nozzle piston system to modify the cross section. An electronically controlled rotary electric actuator is used to channel exhaust gas to the turbine wheel (cross section). This system further improves the boost pressure, torque and fuel economy. The Slidevane VNT is used on 2.0L to 2.5L engines.
The DutyDrive VNT is used on medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicles. The DutyDrive VNT helps off-highway and working vehicles pass emission standards. The DutyDrive VNT has most of the same characteristics as the first generation VNT with a few differences. A balance system adds control, equalises pressure and reduces friction between the engine and turbocharger. Cambered vanes and a new turbine wheel design helps improve efficiency and fuel consumption.
Third Generation VNT
The third generation VNT saw many improvements. It featured a new vane shape and a new turbine wheel that both added control to the system. The new VNT cartridge was smaller, cleaner and easier to modify. The Garrett REA featured on the third generation VNT electronically controls the air flowing in and out of the system. The Garrett REA also replaced the vacuum system needed by engines.
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