Dietary oestrogen (phytoestrogen) can be found in a variety of foods and herbs, although levels vary according to the source. Studies have shown phytoestrogens have health benefits that include reduced risk for breast cancer, prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease, as well as protection against osteoporosis and relief of menopausal symptoms. Women can eat foods high in oestrogen to supply their body with the oestrogen it needs to alleviate menopause symptoms. There are five groups of phytoestrogens that can be found naturally in food.
Bioflavonoids are naturally found in a wide variety of plants and are known to help the body to regulate oestrogen levels. Resveratrol is a bioflavonoid that occurs naturally in grapes and red wine, and has been classified as a phytoestrogen based on its ability to bind to and activate oestrogen receptors. Bioflavanoids are found in vegetables, some herbal teas and spices. They give grapes their purple colour, and those found in soya beans have some oestrogen-like activity as well. Studies have also shown that bioflavanoids can replace oestrogen and relieve hot flushes in menopausal women. Flavonoids may be found in almost all plants, but their concentration varies. Citrus fruits, for example, buckwheat and all white and yellow flowers have very high concentrations.
Flavones are part of the group of phytoestrogens called flavonoids as well. Flavones are present as flavonoid glycosides (sugars) in the flowers, leaves and fruit tissues of living plants . Flavones in some foods have been shown to regulate oestrogen levels. These foods include celery seed, parsley, celery, green pepper, thyme, chamomile, carrots, olive oil, peppermint, rosemary and oregano.
Soy is the most common food source of isoflavones, but they can also be found naturally in legumes, alfalfa, clover and liquorice. Studies have shown that women given isoflavone supplements and milk for a period of one month experienced longer menstrual cycles, which are beneficial because they result in decreased lifetime exposure to oestrogen and lower the risk for breast cancer. Isoflavones are found in high concentration in soya bean and soya bean products, such as tofu, soy flour and soy noodles. Calcium-fortified soy milk is a phytoestrogen rich food source.
Coumestrol, another type of flavonoid, has been shown to mimic the biological activity of oestrogen. Coumestrols are found in a variety of plants, and, due to their oestrogenic activity, they have been studied to determine how they can be used to naturally treat oestrogen levels in women. Coumestrol can be found in several types of legumes, brussel sprouts and spinach, but can be found in higher concentrations in clover and soybeans.
Lignans stimulate the production of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a glycoprotein manufactured in the liver. Lignans have been shown to reduce breast cancer cell production. Women who consume foods with high concentrations of lignans experience increased progesterone-to-oestrogen ratios, and fewer anovulatory cycles, which are ovulatory cycle in which ovulation does not occur. This indicates that consumption of lignans results in improved ovarian function. Lignans can be found fibre-rich foods such as flax seed, as well as other oil seeds like sesame. It's also found in whole grains like barely and wheat, legumes such as kidney beans, lima beans or chickpeas, and vegetables like carrots, eggplant, yams or pumpkin.
Other Estrogen-Rich Foods
There are several other foods that contain phytoestrogens which help regulate oestrogen levels naturally. Fruits like apples, dates, plums and cherries, and vegetables such as beets, tomatoes, olives, potatoes, cucumbers, eggplant and broccoli are all sources of natural oestrogen. You can also try grains such as oats, hops and rice, or seeds like fennel, sunflower seeds and alfalfa. Beans like split peas, black-eyed peas, lima beans, and navy beans are oestrogen-rich foods, and herbs and spices with oestrogen-like properties include garlic, ginger, sage tea, turmeric and oregano.
- Cassiopaea: Natural Influences on Estrogen Metabolism
- Baby-boomer Care: Foods with High Levels of Estrogen
- Dietary Fibre Food: Phytoestrogen and its Food Sources
- Women's Menopause Health Center: Natural Estrogen Replacement -- Rich Foods High in Estrogen.
- Science Mag: Inhibition of Human Estrogen Synthetase (aromatase) by Flavones