In the medical world, lesions are defined as any localised, abnormal structural change in the body, including tumours. Lesions can occur both on the inside of the eye and on the outside, caused by various conditions and diseases. Some internal eye lesions are a result of old age. Eye lesions also can be a result of outside trauma to the eye area, such as an injury resulting from a fall.
Old-Age-Related Eye Lesions
Internal lesions of the eye are sometimes the result of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). According to the University of Illinois Eye and Ear Infirmary, ARMD causes damage to the macula of the eye, which is at the centre of the retina. The lesion is called geographic atrophy and is preceeded by a smaller lesion called "drusen." There are two types of drusen lesions, each with different physical characteristics. What is called "hard drusen" is related to old-age-related macular degeneration.
Conditions and Diseases Lesions
Hundreds of eye lesions can be caused by conditions and diseases. One such disease is iris melanoma. Melanomas are malignant tumours that develop predominantly on the skin. Iris melanoma lesions are a type of pigmented scarring that exhibits tissue outgrowth. They can become visible on the iris or can occur internally on blood vessels that supply blood to the back of the eye.
Another type of lesion is caused by diabetic retinopathy. This condition, says the National Eye Institute of Health, is suffered by diabetics and involves swelling blood vessels in the retina. If a lesion occurs on the retina, vision loss may be a result. These lesions are internal and can exist without symptoms until the damage is extensive.
Trauma to the eye can result in both external and internal damage. Retinal detachment is an internal injury that can result from blunt objects striking the eye or penetration of the eye. Retinal detachment is considered a medical emergency, as blindness can occur.
Other trauma does not have to be that serious to cause an eye lesion. A fall that affects the eye area can also result in lesion of the tissue. The eye is a complex system with microscopic parts working in tandem to produce vision. Any trauma to the area requires a visit to a doctor to assess the extent of the damage.