Particle board is a construction material made from ground wood scraps and glue that have been formed into a single panel through heat and pressure. Particle board is used instead of solid wood to make furniture less expensive. Since particle board is not made from solid wood, it is more likely to chip, crack and wear out than a piece of solid wood furniture. Many minor repairs can be made to particle board furniture using supplies that can be purchased from home improvement stores.
Repair a loose screw by removing the screw and filling the hole with carpenter's glue. Place the wooden end of a matchstick into the hole and reinsert the screw. You may need to use several matchstick ends to create enough mass to hold the screw in place.
Drill new holes near the worn-out holes if the repair will no longer hold a screw. Particle board screws are designed to catch the material better than a traditional screw, so a new screw hole should help keep shelves and doors in place. Do not overdrill the screw or it will become stripped and loose.
Apply carpenter's glue to chipped areas to make the chip less noticeable. For large chips, glue the chip and hold it in place using a furniture clamp. Clean away any excess glue using a soft cloth.
Cover edges that have many chips with an edge strip. Edge strips can be purchased from home improvement stores in a variety of finishes to match your furniture. Adhere the strip according to the manufacturer's directions. A strip will cover chips and breaks along the edge of the furniture, such as the bottom, where there is more wear and tear. The repaired area may not look perfect in comparison to the rest of the piece, but it will prevent further chipping.
Many loose or chipped areas on particle board furniture can be repaired with a strong carpenter's glue.