The models of nursing are theories that have been applied to several clinical settings to achieve the satisfaction of both the patient and health-care provider. They are evidenced-based theories that reflect interrelated factors such as patients' satisfaction and nurses' competency. The common models used worldwide are Neuman Systems Model, McGill Nursing Model, Quality-Caring Model and Synergy Model.
A nursing model is as an outline or framework for health-care providers to fulfil their duties in a multidisciplinary system. Nursing models are based on existing theories, such as the modelling and role-modelling theory and the environmental theory of Florence Nightingale.
Neuman Systems Model
The Neuman Systems Model was developed by Dr. Betty Neuman in 1970. The model aims to provide a wholistic approach of nursing. It is a multidimensional system that encompasses the physiological, spiritual, psychological, socio-cultural, environmental and developmental factors affecting the patient. The goal is to assist the patient in maintaining a stable life amid the continuous changes caused by multidisciplinary factors.
McGill Nursing Model
In the 1970's, Dr. Moyra Allen supervised the development of the McGill Model of Nursing. The model is a complementary system of nursing, where health-care providers collaborate with the person/family and other professionals to promote and maintain an interrelated healthy community.
Quality-Caring Model of Nursing
The Quality-Caring Model was conceptualised in 2003 by Dr. Joanne Duffy and Dr. Lois Hoskins. The model demonstrates the role of nursing in multidisciplinary systems. The model reflects the relationship of "quality nursing" and "educated caring" towards achieving quality health care and patient satisfaction.
AACN Synergy Model
The Synergy Model was formulated by American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Sonya Hardin and Roberta Kaplow in 2005. The model emphasises a patient characteristics-nurse competencies system. The goal is to attain a synergistic relationship by ensuring that the eight defined patients' characteristics are met by the eight defined nurses' competencies.