Pinnacle Pictures/Stockbyte/Getty Images
A koi pond filter removes or converts fish waste. Koi are sensitive fish, and water chemistry and overall water quality affects the health of this species. Every koi pond should incorporate biological filters. Beneficial bacteria cultures coat the biological material within these filters. The bacteria convert toxic fish waste into less harmful substances and remove ammonia and nitrites from the water. Pressurised biological pond filters are a good choice for smaller koi ponds. Koi owners often use protein skimmers and trickle filters to purify koi pond water and keep it crystal clear.
Protein skimmers or foam fractionators are specialised pond filters. Molecules of fish waste and other fine suspended matter adhere to the extremely fine bubbles this filter produces. These molecules of fish waste and bubbles combine to form protein rich foam, which the filter subsequently removes from the water. Protein skimmers are the only pond filters that actually remove toxic products from the water column. These filters offer the added benefit of raising the dissolved oxygen levels in a pond. A protein skimmer typically results in crystal clear pond water that is free of dissolved organic matter.
Conventional Pond Filters
Koi pond filters incorporate both mechanical and biological filtration compartments. The mechanical filter material physically traps large pieces of suspended detritus, including pieces of decomposing aquatic plant material. The mechanical filter material removes this waste matter from circulating in the pond, but it remains in the water, where it continues to decompose. Mechanical filter material must therefore be rinsed out on a regular basis and replaced as necessary. The biological component of these filters convert toxic fish metabolic waste products into harmless substances.
Trickle Tower Filtration
Trickle tower filters are modified biological filters. A spray bar disperses pond water over the biological material in these filters. This protects the bacteria coating biological media from drying out. These bacteria cultures also receive waste matter from the same water. The overriding benefit of trickle filters is that the beneficial bacteria obtain their oxygen requirements from the atmosphere and do not need to compete with the koi for this life-giving product. The bacteria biomass within trickle filters establish very quickly and grow to a considerable size.
Pressurised Pond Filters
These are specialised pond filters, which the pond owner can bury out of sight, if required. Pressurised pond filters are compact in design and select models incorporate a backwashing function. This process allows the filter to flush out solid waste without having to continually open the unit. Pressurised pond filters are suitable for medium to small koi ponds. These filters require a high-pressure aquarium pump to operate effectively.
- Pinnacle Pictures/Stockbyte/Getty Images