How to identify a shrub with red berries

twigs of yew-tree with red berries image by Maria Brzostowska from Fotolia.com

Whether you saw it on a hike, in a magazine or in your neighbour backyard, using a field guide is the best way to identify a mystery plant. As the name implies, field guides are intended to be used in identifying plant or animal species out in the field. However, as long as you can recall enough information about the shrub, it is not always necessary to have one at hand.

leaf 37 image by Aleksander Nordaas from Fotolia.com

Revisit the shrub. Take note of leaf shape, thickness and arrangement. Sumac varieties have compound leaves, meaning that there are more than one leaflet attached to a single stalk. The aromatic sumac, with clusters of shiny red berries, has only three leaflets on each stalk. Smooth sumac, on the other hand, can have 11 to 31 pinnately compound leaflets that look similar to the branches of a fern. Its berries grow in extremely dense clusters and are covered with sticky hairs. If it is needle-leaf shrub, there is a good chance that it is a Canada yew. The fruit of these common decorative shrubs is actually a seed that resides in a protective cup that looks like a round, red berry.

Look for additional characteristics particular to the plant and write them down. Has it ever flowered? Does it emit an aroma? The red elderberry, or stinking elderberry, develops white flowers in early spring that grow in pyramid-shaped clusters. The shiny berries grow in sprays, or clusters, and the plant gives off a rancid odour when crushed. Indian tribes have been known to use elderberry residue as insect repellent. Small details can make a big difference in narrowing the thousands of plants described in a field guide.

Consider geographic location and time of year. The U.S.Department of Agriculture's plant hardiness zone map categorises trees and shrubs based on their adaptability to annual minimum temperature ranges. Other resources might be arranged by state, region or even country. The smooth sumac is the only shrub that can be found in all 48 contiguous states.

Locate a field guide to trees and shrubs in your area. Libraries and small bookstores will have these on hand from a number of different publishers. Keep in mind that trees and shrubs are typically grouped together in a single guide. The main difference between the two is that shrubs are typically less than 13 feet in height and have several perennial stems that extend from the base.

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