Coffee plants can be grown at home with a little patience and knowledge. Using the fruit directly from the plant for planting is the best method, but this is impossible without an adult coffee plant that flowers. An option is to use green coffee beans that have not been roasted or otherwise processed. A bean will need to have been harvested within less than two months to properly germinate. A coffee plant will take four years to mature but will produce many pounds of beans each year thereafter.
Place a large number of beans in a dish that is at least two inches deep. The beans need to be in a single layer. Cover the beans with an inch of water and let them sit for 12 to 24 hours.
A small percentage of the beans will develop a tiny white bump on one end. These are the beans that will properly grow. Remove these beans and discard the rest of them.
Fill a deep pot with a high-quality soil. A standard seedling pot will not work because the plant will have a very long first root. Plant the bean in the pot deeply enough to be covered completely with 1/2 inch of soil.
Water the soil until it is very damp but not soggy. Keep the soil constantly moist and do not allow it to dry out.
Cover the pot with cling film or any other clear plastic top. Place the pot in an area that will receive bright light for the majority of the day. Avoid direct sunlight.
Wait two months for a seedling to begin to appear. Once the seedling is formed, allow another month for it to become well established before moving it to a permanent location.
Plant a coffee plant outdoors in a sunny area that has high-quality loose soil. Water frequently to encourage foliage growth and fruit production.
Feed the plant every two weeks from early spring to early fall. Use a general purpose formula such as a 10-10-10 mixture.
- If left alone, a coffee plant will reach a height of up to 10 feet. Growth can be limited, if desired, by regular pruning. Pinching off new growth in the spring will result in a shorter, bushier plant.
- A coffee plant will not do well in very cold temperatures. If possible, move the plant indoors when the temperature is below -1.11 degrees C. If it is planted in the ground, cover it well at night to prevent freezing.