Tencel (lyocell) is a recently (as of 2010) developed artificial fibre. It is the only fibre to be invented in the last 30 years. Unlike polyester or nylon, it is made not from a completely synthetic polymer but rather from wood-based cellulose. You can find pure Tencel fabric or Tencel fabric contains other types of fibres.
Early History of Synthetic Fiber
For most of human history, fibres for fabric have been obtained either from animals or from plants. Wool jackets and cotton shirts have been worn since prehistoric times. In the 1890s the first artificial fibre was developed. Viscose, also known as artificial silk, is a cellulose-based fibre as is rayon, which was discovered in 1924. While these fibres are considered artificial, they are not completely synthetic as they are made from natural cellulose.
The Nylon Breakthrough
The first completely synthetic fibre was nylon. Invented just before World War II, it became renown for its use in women's stockings rather than for its military uses in rope, parachutes and clothing. By 1941 polyester fibres came into existence. During the next 60 years there were many improvements based on these fibres and the fabrics that can be made from them. Dacron, terelyne and micro fibres are a few examples.
How Artificial Fibers are Made
Artificial and synthetic fibres are made through a process called extrusion. The liquid cellulose or synthetic polymer is forced through very small holes (spinnerets) into the air where the fibres are created. They can be made relatively thick or down to a very thin 4 microns.
What is Tencel?
Lyocell, commercially known as Tencel in the United States, is an artificial fibre made from wood pulp cellulose. As it is made from wood pulp harvested from tree farms, it is a renewable, environmentally friendly material. Although it is a manufactured fibre it is considered natural and as such is biodegradable. It is dissolved in a nontoxic recyclable dissolving agent.
Fabric can either be made completely from Tencel or combined with other materials to reduce costs. Fabric made from short Tencel fibres has a feel very much like cotton. It does, however, resist wrinkling and does not shrink. Longer Tencel fibres give fabric a smooth, silky feel. These fabrics fall beautifully and can be used in elegant formal wear.
Problems with Tencel Fabric
Tencel has a low surface energy, meaning that dyes don't bind well. This can cause fading. Also, although Tencel fibres themselves are eco-friendly, some manufacturers use processes such as enzyme baths, chemical processes, and dye treatments that are in no way "green." These chemical treatments can cause allergies in people with sensitivities.