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Quantitative chemistry is a branch of science that studies and differentiates matter in a chemical and molecular level using laboratory tests and equipments to show visible results. Volumetric analysis is one of the laboratory tests used in quantitative chemistry to show the relationship of a molecule's composition and the way they react to substances. It is also called volumetric titration because all experiments under this method of analysis are completed by titration reactions.
Volumetric analysis is a method of determining chemical differences and principles of redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions between molecules. Chemicals under this topic are classified based on the results obtained from titration.
The process of creating a balance chemical equation 'in vitro' is called titration. It typically uses a volumetric flask, hence, called volumetric titration.
There are three types of volumetric titration, which are classified based on the rate of their reaction. Direct titration method (DTM) is a one-step titration process. Indirect method (ITM) involves a two-step titration process. Back titration method (BTM) uses a three-step titration process.
The principle involved in all titration methods is to balance a chemical reaction, such as achieving acid and base equilibrium. The most important key is to attain the desired end point regardless of the steps involved in the process. Therefore, it doesn't matter if it is processed using direct, indirect or back titration method because they will still arrive at the same equivalent point.
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Titration starts by preparing two solutions, the analyte and titrant.
Add an indicator to your analyte, and then slowly add your titrant solution in a drop-wise manner until the analyte changes its colour.
Analyte An analyte is a weak base or acid. Its structure is made from any compound that can be converted to a strong acid or base.
Titrant The titrant is a strong acid or base that is slowly added to the analyte until it reaches any visible change in the colour of the solution under observation.
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End Point This is your hint to know if the analyte has reached the minimum amount that is allowed to react with the titrant.
Indicator It is a pH marker added to the analyte that triggers a change in colour when equilibrium is reached. It should have a weaker acid/base concentration than the analyte.
Volumetric analysis is applied to laboratory tests for analysing and explaining the unknown chemical changes taking place inside our body. It is a test for understanding the complex patterns of amino acids and its DNA-related behaviours. A saponification (soap-making), extraction and standardisation process also undergoes titration methods. These are just a few from the endless list of volumetric analysis' applications and significance.
- Experiments in Quantitative Chemistry Lab. (Biochemistry); Irene Bancolo; 2006