Earnest methodology for fixing a roof requires checking the warranty, building codes, OSHA safety standards and state environmental standards. Most roofs have 20- or 30-year warranties. Repairs done incorrectly render the warranty invalid. OSHA requires fall protection and most states require that the roof withstand strong winds. Repairing the roof requires removing damaged roofing material, repairing the roof deck and replacing roofing material in compliance with current building codes.
Inspect the roof
Bubbles are simply air under the roofing material. Bubbles are not necessarily a problem. Do not open bubbles because you can create a leak or damage the roof by directing water in the wrong direction.
Look for soft spots. Soft spots can be water trapped beneath the roofing material or an area of the roof decking which is starting to rot or deteriorate.
Locate places to fix
Locate sections of the roof that are damaged or missing. You can only see the top layer of the roofing material. Find leaks. Check masonry around the chimney or around the air conditioner. Water can leak from the masonry and run between the layers or down the deck seeping through the ceiling far from the leak. Moisture readings can be determined with a gauge or an infrared camera.
Remove damaged roofing material
Remove roofing sheets or shingles surrounding the area that needs to be repaired. Building codes prohibit more than three layers of roofing material. Put up a slide guard to keep workers from falling off the roof.
Falling off a roof is one of the most common causes of death of construction workers. OSHA assesses fines in the thousands of dollars for not using adequate fall protection, sometimes putting roofing companies out of business.
Repair damage to the deck
The roof deck may be easy to repair, or it may require major renovations. Current repairs must meet current roofing building codes for exposure and wind lift. A structural engineer may be necessary to determine how to fix the roof deck. Current wind lift code requires that the roof withstand 120mph winds.
Fix the underlay layer
Felt underlay is attached to the deck with the same material as the roofing material or shingles are attached. The underlay is asphalt impregnated felt or fibre glass. Ice and water shield is a more robust underlay material.
Attach the new roofing material
Roofing sheets are attached to a flat roof and sealed in place with hot tar. Shingles are nailed in specific places with a number of nails specified in the building code to meet uplift requirements. All buildings are different. The roof has to be correctly sealed. Be careful not to trap water or moisture which can foster mould.