You need to release gas inside cylinders in a controlled way. This is where regulators come in. A regulator, also called a pressure regulator, is a valve that allows you to regulate the flow of pressurised liquid or gas. There are two main types: single-stage and two-stage. You connect a regulator to a cylinder using one of three main types of connections.
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British Standard carbon dioxide cylinder valves are used in Europe, Africa and large parts of Australasia. The thread conforms to British Standard BS 341 Part 1 No. 8. This is a 0.860 inch x 14 TPI thread. The "14 TPI" refers to a screw thread with 14 threads per inch. The European equivalent to this thread, effectively interchangeable with the British Standard, is DIN 477 No. 6. "DIN" refers to the Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., or the German Institute for Standardization. The Weldequip CO2 Gas Regulator is an example of a regulator with a BS connector.
American CGA 320 threads are commonly used for carbon dioxide cylinders in the Americas. "CGA" refers to the Compressed Gas Association, which develops standards for safe practices in the use and release of gas. If the middle digit of a CGA valve number is even, as with CGA 320, the thread is clockwise and vice versa. Clockwise (CW) means a right-handed thread and counterclockwise (CCW) means a left-handed thread. For ease of identification, CCW threads have notches cut into the closing nut. The AquaticLife CO2 regulator, which has an integrated solenoid valve controlled by a 120-volt electric current, is an example of a unit with a female CGA 320 thread.
In Japan and other parts of East Asia, the JIS B 8246 thread is popular for connecting C02 regulators. "JIS" stands for Japanese Industrial Standards. The "B" refers specifically to mechanical engineering. The QF-2P2, manufactured by Jiangsu Xinya Valve Co. Ltd., is an example of a gas valve with a JIS B 8246 thread. Japanese regulators were the regulators of choice for East Pakistan's Urea Fertilizer Factory, since the tender was won by a consortium of five Japanese companies in 1958. The regulators were used in the decomposition of natural gas and in the urea department. The U.S. Chemical Construction Corporation was the fertiliser factory's inspiration, having pioneered many of the urea production methods.
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