Flowering plants are a diverse group, with at least 260,000 living species classified in 453 families, according to The Tree of Life Project. The fundamental flowering plant parts most often labelled are the flower and its structures, along with leaf, stem and root.
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The flower includes the stamen, pistil, sepal and petals. The stamen is the male part of a flowering plant and has two parts: anthers and filaments. The anthers, which are held up by the filaments, are usually yellow, and they carry the pollen.
The pistil is the female part of a flowering plant and has three parts: stigma, style and ovary. The stigma, held up by a tubelike structure called the style, is a sticky surface that traps and holds the pollen. The style leads down to the ovary that contains the ovules. Ovules become seeds when the plant is fertilised.
The flower's petals are important because they attract pollinators such as bees and butterflies. Sepals are green petal-like parts at the base of the flower that help protect the developing bud.
The leaf makes food for a plant through a process called photosynthesis. Using carbon dioxide, chlorophyll (the plant's green pigment), water and light, photosynthesis produces glucose (a sugar), which is the plant's source of food. Photosynthesis also releases oxygen into the air for other forms of life to breathe.
In additional to providing structural support that enables leaves to reach sunlight, the stem of a flowering plant carries water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. The stem also stores nutrients and produces new living tissue for the plant.
The roots of a plant anchor the plant in the soil, and they absorb water and nutrients needed for growth. A plant without a good root system will grow poorly and even die.
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