A trigger point is a distinct focus of hyperirritability within a stretched and tense band of muscle. These trigger points form as a result of stress or trauma to muscles. Pain associated with trigger points can occur at the site or can be referred elsewhere in the body.
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The rectus abdominis muscle is a long, flat muscle that extends down the entire middle abdomen. Trigger points in the rectus abdominis can cause mid and lower back pain and pain in the lower abdomen area. Heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and indigestion are also associated with trigger points in this muscle.
External Abdominal Oblique
The external obliques are flat, laterally lying abdominal muscles. Trigger points in this muscle can cause groin and testicular pain, vomiting, heartburn and diarrhoea.
The iliocostalis thoracis muscle is a deep muscle of the back. Trigger points in this muscle can lead to pain in the anterior rib cage and abdominal wall.
The pyramidalis muscles are small muscles that are present bilaterally in the lower abdomen, superficial to the rectus muscle. Trigger points in this muscle cause pain between the umbilical region and the groin.
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- "Trigger Points: Diagnosis and Management"; Journal of the American Academy of Family Physicians; David J. Alvarez, D.O., and Pamela G. Rockwell, D.O.; 2002.
- "Clinical mastery in the treatment of myofascial pain"; Lucy Whyte Ferguson, Robert Gerwin; 2004.
- "Gray's Anatomy for Students"; Richard Drake, Wayne Vogl, Adam Mitchell; 2005.