Art teachers have to meet a variety of different qualifications in order to get hired. The particular qualifications will vary depending on the level at which he or she wishes to teach. College art teachers will have to meet different qualifications than high school art teachers, for instance, and independent art teachers may have to meet no requirements at all.
One of the primary qualifications that an art teacher will need is a degree in a field of art. Which level of degree that's required will of course vary by where the art teacher wants to be hired. College art teachers should have at minimum a bachelors degree, but it's more likely that they will need a master's degree or a doctorate degree. High school art teachers will likely also need a bachelors degree, but if the teacher works for a private school that school may not require a degree at all. The same is true for individuals who teach private art classes on their own.
Experience is another qualification. If an art teacher has a degree in photography, painting or sculpture, then they have classroom experience and knowledge of the theory behind their art. However, if an art teacher hasn't worked in the field then they can't explain to their students how art translates from theory to real results. Experience in the field can help add weight to a teacher's lessons.
Another qualification, depending on where the teacher is working, is a teaching certification. Some schools, such as high schools and middle schools, may require a teacher to have a state-issued certificate that enables them to teach. This is mostly true for potential teachers who don't have a degree in education, but who went straight for their fine-arts qualifications. For private schools a teaching certification might be unnecessary, though, since private schools can set their own requirements for teachers because they don't receive government assistance for their programs.