Natural science is the study of the physical and natural (meaning not man-made) world. Natural science careers are in fields such as medicine, biology and environmental sciences such as geology. Education requirements for natural science positions range from certifications to doctorates. Natural science careers include positions in academia, administration, politics, research and field work.
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Marine biologists study animals and other wildlife that live in the marine environment. Genetics, behaviours and diseases are all areas of study. Marine biologists observe the wildlife in natural environments and compile reports about their observations, analysis and theories. Work by marine biologists informs lawmakers and other stakeholders on laws or actions that affect marine life. According to the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence, 95 per cent of marine biologists have college degrees and the mean annual salary is £34,450.
Botanists study plant life. Types of plants include moss, algae and common house plants like ferns. Specialities within botany include plant classification, plant diseases and how plants interact with other organisms. Some botanists spend most of their time in the field as opposed to an office. Botanists who are independent researchers typically have a doctorate degree. The Botanical Society of America includes members employed by universities, government agencies and non-profit organisations. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, botanists earn an average of £47,314 per year.
Forensic scientists work in the field and in labs analysing data. Forensic scientists collect and study evidence from crime scenes. Hair, tissue and blood are common substances tested by forensic scientists. Forensic scientists use their expertise and analysis to help solve crimes. They are often called as witnesses in criminal cases, especially cases involving DNA evidence. Forensic scientists are also sometimes called crime scene investigators. Local police departments, as well as federal law enforcement agencies, hire forensic scientists. Most forensic science positions require at least a bachelor's degree in forensic science specifically or in a related natural science. According to Criminal Justice USA, forensic scientists earn between £22,750 and £32,500 per year.
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