A septic field, waste water drainage field or leach field can have different designs depending on the state's regulatory body controlling the installation of septic systems. Most contractors use the conventional septic field lines, but new technology is allowing for the use of different type of pipes. All of these line options still allow the waste water from the septic tank to disburse throughout the septic field.
All septic fields have solid lines running to trenches where some form of seeping pipe run throughout the trenches. The number of trenches depends on the number of bathrooms, sinks and other drains located inside the dwelling. The conventional septic field uses perforated plastic lines that lie on top of gravel. The perforated plastic allows the waste water from the septic tank to seep onto the gravel and then into the ground. The diameter of the pipe is also determined by the number of drainage areas inside the building. Perforated plastic is grooved with small holes running throughout the pipe so the seepage can occur slowly and not overload the ground.
One septic field option has drainage pipes running into plastic chambers and does not use seepage pipes at all. The plastic chambers arch and have open bottoms so the effluent can disperse evenly into the soil surrounding the arched plastic chamber. The benefit of this option of septic field design is it does not take as much room to install this type of leach field and is easier to install. The arched chamber has small holes running throughout the arches which disperse the waste water into the side of the ground covering the chamber as well as the soil below the chamber.
Aerobic Treatment System
The aerobic treatment system is another type of septic system that does not require a large septic field. Used primarily in areas that do not have the land required to install a sizeable septic field, this septic system removes most of the impurities from the waste water inside the septic tank before dispersing the water into PVC lines. The cleaner effluent can then seep out of the PVC line and into a smaller leach field because most of the contaminants remain in the septic tank.
Perforated clayware lines is another option when installing septic fields in heavy soils that can damage the pipe when backloading the trenches with dirt. The pipes have small holes surrounding the diameter of the line so the waste water can slowly seep into the trench. Commonly used where the septic lines run underneath a road or driveway, the perforated clayware holds up better under the elements and weather conditions. Some states require the septic field trenches be a minimum of four feet deep. In these instances, it is best to use perforated clayware because of its strength compared to perforated plastic or PVC.