The easiest way to identify evergreen bushes is by their foliage, which falls into one of two categories: needle-leaf or broad-leaf. Needle-leaf evergreens include popular varieties such as junipers and yews. Holly and boxwood are common broad-leaf evergreens. A close look at its leaves can help you identify an evergreen shrub with confidence.
Junipers and Siberian Cypress
Short, sharp needles are the identifying features of junipers. If the needles hurt when you grab them, it's a juniper. The most widely planted of all evergreen shrubs, junipers range from low-creeping ground cover to specimens that tower up to 15 feet. Siberian cypress look a lot like creeping junipers. But a close examination reveals that Siberian cypress needles are flatter and softer than juniper --- and they do not hurt when you touch them.
Yews are the second most popular evergreen shrub. Their flat, 3/4- to 1-inch-long needles are dark green on top and lighter green underneath --- and they are not marked with the white stripes you may find on other evergreens. Some varieties make very good hedges or screens. The female plants produce bright red berries.
Arbor vitae often are planted close together to create an evergreen hedge or privacy screen. This evergreen shrub can grow 10 to 20 feet wide and up to 30 feet tall. Its 1/16- to 1/8-inch-long, scalelike leaves grow in flat, fan-like sprays.
Dwarf Evergreen Shrubs
Dwarf pines, firs and spruces are popular landscape plants. The dwarf Alberta spruce is a small, slow-growing, pyramid-shaped shrub that typically grows only 4 to 5 feet tall. Its dense, light green foliage is comprised of thin 1/2-inch-long needles that radiate around their stems. The mugo pine is a compact evergreen shrub with a dense, rounded growth habit. It grows 4 to 10 feet tall. This two-needled pine features dark-green, 1- to 1 1/2-inch-long stiff needles that remain on the tree for four years.
Holly, Azaleas and Wintergreen Barberry
With their spiny, glossy evergreen leaves and bright red berries, American and Chinese holly are the most familiar holly bushes. If it produces large colourful blooms on woody stems in the spring and keeps its leafy, green foliage year-round, it might be an evergreen azalea or rhododendron. The evergreen foliage of wintergreen barberry is 3 inches long, narrow and spiny. This prickly shrub makes an effective barrier and hedge plant. It produces small yellow flowers in May and dark berries in the fall.
Boxwoods make excellent hedging plants with their soft, green foliage. Of the more than 160 cultivars, the most popular are American and English. American boxwood is a wide-spreading shrub with dense evergreen foliage that typically grows 5 to 10 feet tall. The leaves are lance-like to oval in shape, 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches long, usually shiny and dark green on the top and pale green on the underside. English boxwood is a low, slow-growing shrub that may grow up to 3 feet high. The plant's rounded foliage, which may be called cloudlike, is denser than that of the American boxwood; the leaves are much more rounded and oval in shape.
- Terry L. Ettinger Horticulture Consulting Services: Evergreen Identification
- ToBuildAGarden.com: Different Types of Evergreen Shrubs
- University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension; Evergreen Shrubs Differ; Don Jannsen; December 2007
- North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service; Growing Boxwoods in the Landscape; Erv Evans, et al.; February 1999
- English Boxwoods of Virginia: English vs. American Boxwoods --- How to Tell the Difference
- University of Missouri Extension; Needled Evergreens; Christopher J. Starbuck; April 2003
- Arbor Day Foundation: Tree Identification
- Ohio State University: Picea Glauca "Conica" --- Dwarf Alberta Spruce (Pinaceae)
- Bonsai Clubs International; Mugo Pine (Swiss Mountain Pine) Pinus Mugo; Sabrina Caine
- University of Missouri Extension; Broadleaved Evergreens; Christopher J. Starbuck; August 2007