Socioeconomics is an area that governs the understandings and the activities of individuals that shape them as economically active. The socio-economic issues are the problems that socioeconomics tackles and the factors that have negative influence on the individuals' economic activity. Such issues are lack of education, cultural and religious discrimination, overpopulation, unemployment and corruption.
Lack of Education
Education is essential for the economic development of countries, since the industry of different states requires skilled professionals. When there is lack of education, businesses cannot grow because of lack of expertise among labour. For example, the Indian University Grant Commission indicates that access and quality in education in the country continue to experience problems such as bad infrastructure and lack of professional academics. This results in decline of the economic activity in particular areas such as South Indian provinces.
Cultural and Religious Issues
The integration of different cultures and religion in a state result in a stable social structure that is favourable for economic development. However, a persistent problem in many countries is the cultural and religious disagreements between social classes. For example, Kazakhs in Russia cannot be integrated in the society because of unwillingness and lack of dialogue between both parties. Leading academics from Agentura.Ru Studies and Research Center indicate that this has led to increased terrorism activity, which is negative for the development of the economy -- the state departments exhaust resources in the fight against terrorism and Russian people lack a satisfactory level of security.
Overpopulation is a serious socio-economic issues in countries of the developing world, namely Asian states such as China and India. Overpopulation results in reduced opportunities for members of a family, large expenses for the states and hardship in the access to education. Furthermore, overpopulated territories suffer from extreme poverty and lack of resources available to people. This is described by a publication from the Population Reference Bureau, which focuses on the problems that India tackles in relation to overpopulation.
In his report on South Africa, economist Gary S. Fields from the U.S. University of Cornell indicates that unemployment is a major economic and social issue. It cases serious economic decline as the standard of living in countries reduces. Unemployment causes social inequality since members of the public suffer from a decreased earning capacity and minimal economic activity.
Corruption is among the most serious issues that bar countries from proper economic development. In countries with high rates of corruption, the decision-making processes are subordinated to the needs of powerful business organisations and do not serve the public well being. This results in strong separation of classes, inflicts poverty and favours erosion of political values. In its corruption assessment on Ukraine, the U.S. Agency on International Development indicates that the country is among the most corrupt states in Europe because of the influence of powerful business structures that exercise influence over the decision-making process in the state. This contributes for a strong social separation and impaired economic development.
- "University Grant Commission New Delhi"; Higher Education in India"; Sukhadeo Thorat; November 2006
- "Agentura.Ru Studies and Research Centre"; Terrorism Prevention in Russia: One Year After Beslan; Andrei Soldatov, et al.; September 2005
- "Population Bulletin"; India's Population Reality: Reconciling Change and Tradition; Carl Haub, et al.; September 2006
- "USAID"; Corruption Assessment: Ukraine; Bertram I. Spector, et al; 10 Feb 2010
- "TIPS"; The Employment Problem in South Africa; Gary S. Fields; September 2000