A socket weld fitting is unthreaded, but has large sockets at both ends to accept a pipe end. The fitting is then permanently welded to the pipe. Socket weld connections fuse the fitting to the pipe, and are typically used for high-pressure pipe systems. A 90-degree socket-weld elbow can be specified in a number of sizes.
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Nominal Pipe Sizes
Class 3000 (Schedule 80) socket-weld elbows can be specified for pipe sizes ranging from 1/4 inch to 4 inches in diameter. The higher-pressure Class 6000 (Schedule 160) elbows are manufactured in sizes ranging from 3/8 inch to 4 inches.
Socket and Bore Diameters
The socket diameter is the outside width of the socket; the bore diameter is the size of the opening through which the pipe must pass. Socket diameters can be specified in sizes ranging from .42 to 4.545 inches; bore diameters range from .269 to 4.026 inches. Dimension do not vary from Class 3000 to Class 6000 fittings.
Minimum Instillation Space Requirement
The amount of clearance that must be allowed for an elbow differs by the size of the fitting and the service class. For instance, a 3/8-inch Class 3000 elbow must be installed in a space 1.1 inches in diameter, whereas a similar Class 6000 elbow must be installed in a 1.3-inch space.
Distance to Inside Corner
Another important specification for socket weld elbows is the distance from the outer edge of the socket bore to the point where the interior of the fitting bends. This distance can range from .08 inch in a 1/8-inch Class 3000 fitting, to 4.2 inches in a 4-inch fitting. The same distance in Class 6000 fittings is somewhat larger. For instance, a 4-inch fitting in this class measures 4.5 inches from edge of collar to interior bend.
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