Titration is a method in chemistry used to determine the concentration of a chemical reactant within a solution called the analyte. The titration equivalence point --- also known as the stoichiometric point --- of a chemical reaction occurs when an added titrant becomes equal to the amount of moles of the analyte. At this point the analyte is neutralised or the titrant reacts with the analyte. Once the titration is complete and the endpoint has been reached, the amount of titrant consumed in the chemical reaction should be equal to the equivalence point.
- Skill level:
Use given information, such as concentration of the acid or base in the analyte and the amount of analyte in litres, to find the number of moles of acid or base in the solution. If this information is not given to you outright, multiply the concentration of the acid or base by the number of litres of analyte to obtain the moles.
Determine the ratio for the reaction between the reactants, the analyte and the titrant. This is found by comparing the number of molecules in one reactant to the number of molecules in the other. For instance, the ratio could be one-to-one or several molecules may needed for one molecule of the other.
Calculate the needed amount of titrant necessary to neutralise the analyte. For instance, if the ratio between titrant and analyte is one-to-one, you need one mole of titrant per one mole of analyte.
Divide this number, the amount of necessary titrant, by the molarity of the titrant. The result is the volume of titrant needed to neutralise the analyte. This is the titration equivalence point.
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