Determining the gender of a pigeon is known as sexing. Pigeons have no outer genitals to help you determine if they are male or female. For this reason, there are several observations that must be made to determine the sex of your pigeons. By looking at behaviour, physical characteristics and mating rituals, you can effectively determine the sex of your pigeons.
Size up your pigeons. Males are generally larger and heavier than female pigeons. The male's body is plumper and its feathers fuller.
Inspect your pigeons' faces. Male pigeons have a more pronounced, higher crown than females. The females' eyes will be higher on her head and the males' will be lower because of this difference.
Observe your pigeons behaviour patterns. Males tend to bow their heads and scrape their tail feathers on the ground during mating season. Females do not do this. The males will also puff up and spin around to get the female's attention.
Watch the aggressiveness of your pigeons. Males are more aggressive than females and may be more inclined to fight other pigeons.
Observe egg-sitting behaviour in pigeons. Male pigeons will sit on eggs in the nest early in the day, while the female will sit on the eggs in the late afternoon and evening.
The only way to be absolutely sure of a bird's gender is to have an avian vet perform a DNA testing.