# How to calculate the mean of a likert score

Written by brenda scottsdale
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Traditional statisticians would advise against calculating the mean on Likert-scale data, which is ordinal data. Numbers represent choices in Likert-scale data, such as strongly agree = 1 and moderately agree = 2. Ordinal data does not have equal distances between the numbers and therefore violates one of the assumptions necessary to use the mean as a measure of central tendency. The median or the mode are preferable. If you are looking for general trends and there is a large sample, however, such as in market research, calculating the mean is acceptable.

Skill level:
Moderate

## Instructions

1. 1

Assign a numeric value to each response. Response choices and number assignments could be strongly agree = 2, moderately agree = 1, neither agree nor disagree = 0, moderately disagree = (-1) and strongly disagree = (-2). The numbers could be coded in any way, the numbers here are just used as a symbol for the response --- however, coding with a middle value of zero makes results easier to interpret through graphs.

2. 2

Add the total responses to each question. If six people responded yielding answers of (-2), 1, 1, 0, 0, and (-1), the total would be (-1).

3. 3

Divide by the total number of answers: (-1)/6 = (-0.167).

4. 4

Interpret results. As none of the response choices corresponds with (-0.167), there are two ways to interpret. You could say that most people responded "Neither Disagree or Agree", which is the rounding method, or you could give a range of value, such as most people responded either neutrally or with moderate disagreement.

#### Tips and warnings

• Be careful when calculating the mean with ordinal data, such as Likert scales. If precision is needed the median or mode are better measures of central tendency.

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