One of the most used, and simplest purification methods in chemistry is an extraction, where a solution with the crude mixture dissolved in it is mixed with an non-miscible solvent that the product will dissolve in. The amount of product that is transferred to the second solvent versus the amount originally in the crude solution is the extraction yield. With an organic product and organic solvents, the yield is called the organic extraction yield.
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Determine the amount of product present in the crude mixture solution. The simplest analytical technique to determine the amount of product in the solution would be UV-Vis spectroscopy and Beer's law; however, depending on the contaminants and the product molecule, this may not be feasible.
Determine the amount of product captured after one washing of the crude solution by the extractant. Rotovapping off the solvent with a rotary evaporator can leave you with the product that can be easily massed.
Divide the amount of product captured by the extraction in grams by number of grams present in the crude solution. This will give you a percentage, which is the extraction yield.
Tips and warnings
- A initial extraction with the proper solvents will yield 50 to 98 per cent, depending on the crude concentration and volumes used.
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