How to Determine the Number of Toilets in a Building

Written by tom raley
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Several items must be planned into any building. These include emergency items such as fire escapes and first aid kits down to the basic necessities of life such as bathroom facilities. The proper number of bathrooms is not only convenient, federal guidelines dictate the minimum number of toilets to be located within a building.

Skill level:
Moderately Easy

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Things you need

  • Number of building occupants
  • OSHA code

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  1. 1

    Determine the number of employees who will be occupying the building at any given point in time. Generally, a building is designed to house a certain number of employees, and the rest room facilities must match the maximum occupancy number.

  2. 2

    Compare the number of employees to the OSHA chart for number of required rest rooms.

    1 to15 employees: 1 rest room 16 to 35 employees: 2 rest rooms 36 to 55 employees: 3 rest rooms 56 to 80 employees: 4 rest rooms 81 to 110 employees: 5 rest rooms 111 to 150 employees: 6 rest rooms

  3. 3

    Evaluate the availability of rest rooms to employees. OSHA requires that rest rooms be "readily" available to employees. In some cases this does not require the rest room to be physically located in a particular structure. If an available rest room is nearby and employees have uninterrupted access to these facilities, it may meet federal guidelines.

  4. 4

    Install the proper rest room devices. The number of rest rooms listed in the table indicates the number of water closets required. A water closet is a device that will allow defecation as well as urination, so a urinal will not count toward the total needed.

Tips and warnings

  • Studies by the National Institutes of Health reported in NIH Publication No. 95-2754, July 1995, have shown that females need to urinate more frequently than males to avoid certain health risks. If a building will occupy a larger number of females, more rest rooms may be required.
  • If the rest room facilities being used are in another building, be certain access to these rest rooms is not limited by the hours or other operations of this business or building occupant.

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