"Still the dead man arrived each night, making as if to seize those who were sleeping ... the bishop was just as amaze as everybody else, but was told by some of his advisers that such things had often happened in England ..."— William of Newburgh, "Historia Rerum Anglicarum"
Everyone loves a good horror story, one that sends shivers up the spine and causes us to jump when the wind howls in the trees. Horror stories are a vital part of British literature -- one of the earliest examples of English literature is a monster story -- and continue to be a vibrant part of British culture today. In fact, the modern horror story has its origins in Britain.
The Medieval Dead
Stories of ghost, monsters and the macabre date back to the beginnings of British literature. One of the most famous is Beowulf, an Old English poem about a Scandinavian hero and his battles against a series of monsters. Other medieval stories about ghosts and the walking dead made their way into chronicles and histories.
Although the poem Beowulf isn't a horror story itself -- it's a heroic narrative about a great warrior and his deeds -- its early sections contain long passages focusing on the monster Grendel. The anonymous poet evokes the eerie images of the landscape at night: "in off the moors, down through the mist bands / God-cursed Grendel came greedily loping. / The bane of the race of men roamed forth, / hunting for a prey in the high hall. / Under the cloud-murk he moved towards it ... ."
Eerie tales of the walking dead occur in medieval British chronicles. For instance, "The Life and Miracles of St Modwenna" tells a story about how a group of men returned from the dead "now in the shape of men carrying wooden coffins on their shoulders, now in the likeness of bears or dogs or other animals ..." and terrorised their village until a group of local dug them up, cut their heads off -- in traditional zombie-killing fashion -- and then tore their hearts out.
A more vampire-like tale comes from the medieval historian William of Newburgh, who describes a pair of young men hunting a walking corpse. When they dig up the corpse, they discover it "swollen to an enormous corpulence, with is countenance ... suffused with blood... ." The heroes tear the heart out of the corpse and burn it.
Tales of the supernatural continue to be an important part of British literature throughout the middle ages and into the Renaissance, with the ghost in Hamlet being one of the most famous examples. But the birth of the modern horror story was yet to come.
The birth of the Gothic genre -- the forerunner of modern horror -- came in the 18th century with Horace Walpole's "The Castle of Otranto," which told a complex story of hauntings and treachery in a medieval castle. Walpole's innovation was to blend the traditional elements of medieval romances, with their ghosts, spells and other fantastic themes, with the psychological realism of contemporary novels. The resulting combination was hugely successful, and the Gothic tale became a popular form of literature.
Walpole's successors included Ann Radcliffe, who developed stories in which seemingly supernatural events that turned out to have mundane explanations, a phenomenon now more closely associated with Scooby-Doo. Many Gothic authors, including Matthew Lewis, included elements of humour or parody in their works.
The most famous fruits of the Gothic genre are two later examples: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein draws on the Gothic tradition and marries it to speculation about science to create what may be the first work of science fiction. Although author Bram Stoker was Irish, he was living in London and immersed in the British theatrical world when he wrote Dracula, perhaps the most famous horror novel of all.
The Gothic novel spread across Europe and to America; American writer Edgar Allan Poe was one of the genre's finest writers. But the bulk of great horror writing in the 18th and 19th centuries was taking place in Britain. Welsh writer Arthur Machen's novella The Great God Pan is beloved of horror fans but little-known outside the genre, while other writers such as M.R. James and Algernon Blackwood brought the ghost story to new heights of perfection.
Changes in society were underway that would put literary horror on the back foot, however; the growing influence of Hollywood and changing social priorities in the postwar world would see a decline in the prominence of British horror -- but not for long.
A New Era of British Horror
The postwar boom in British horror took its cue from America, but reimagined the Hollywood horror story in a rawer, more lurid form. Meanwhile, British horror writers were taking the existing traditions of horror fiction and reimagining them in a more intensely personal way.
The most famous images of postwar British horror come from reimaginings of horror classics by Hammer Films. Ironically, Hammer's vision of horror was based on a response to American horror films which were in turn based on British horror novels like Stoker's Dracula and Shelly's Frankenstein. Cheap, garish and sensational, these postwar productions introduced a new level of sex and violence to a previously staid genre.
Similarly, British horror writers of the mid-to-late 20th century reacted to developments in American horror. In particular, writers such as Ramsey Campbell were influenced by the work of American horror writer H.P. Lovecraft, whose work in the 1920 and 1930s was only just beginning to become well-known.
Modern British horror comes in dozens of different varieties, ranging from personal psychological horror to clever parodies to crude gross-out. Each of these genres has its roots in the long tradition of British horror stories -- from sincere to sophisticated to silly.