Road construction takes time, and requires lots of manpower, organisations and processes. From planning, addressing social, environmental and legal matters, through to the contract bidding, construction and maintenance stages, all steps must be adhered to for success
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Planning entails producing the original design concept which covers points like the road's length and width, the corridor route and construction materials. It is necessary to identify sources of funding to cover the projected operating budget.
Preliminary engineering begins with land surveying to identify issues standing in the way of project completion. It may require clearing trees, buying privately owned property or documenting environmental impact and the ensuing public hearings and review.
Highways authorities inspect the plans and the land involved. Right-of-way acquisitions begin along with compulsory purchases (in some cases) of properties along the route. Public consultation sessions keep residents and business owners informed and allow for their input.
Advertising for bids allows contractors to submit their cost analysis for the project. The contracts are awarded, generally to the contractors with the lowest bids.
Construction and maintenance
The road is constructed, with periodic inspections. Once the road is completed, it must be maintained regularly to prevent rapid deterioration.
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