Converting 24 volts to 12 volts requires dividing the voltage in half. The easiest way to do this is with a voltage divider circuit. These circuits are relatively simple to build.
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Ohm's law is the mechanism by which voltage dividers work. The voltage level of an electrical device is equal to the resistance of that device multiplied by the current flowing through it. The voltage supplied to a circuit is divided between the components of the circuit. Each gets a percentage of the voltage in proportion to its resistance.
The two types of voltage dividers are alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). DC voltage dividers are made of two resistors. AC voltage dividers are made of two impedance sources. These can be coils or capacitors.
To divide 24 volts into 12 volts, the two resistances, or impedances, must be equal.
Using this circuit to power another device changes how the circuit operates by changing the resistance of the circuit. This must be compensated for when building a voltage converter.
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