Narrow tubes called xylem transport water from the roots to the flower's petals. Osmosis, capillary action and transpiration serve as the mechanisms to move the water. Plant physiologists study the movement of water in plants.
Water Uptake by Roots
Plant roots uptake water from the surrounding soil through osmosis. The water flows across a semi-permeable membrane. It allows water and small molecules to flow through, but not large molecules such as sugars and proteins. The water flows into the root in an attempt to dilute the concentration of larger molecules inside the root cells.
Transport of Water Through the Stem
Capillary action moves the water through the stem. The water molecules stick to each other and the walls of the xylem, creating a column of water that pulls itself upwards defying gravity.
Transport of Water from the Stem to the Petals
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from a plant's leaves and petals, creating a force that draws water up through the plant from the roots. Sometimes the pressure is so great, droplets form on the outside of the plant, which is known as guttation.
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