The term developmental arrest means that some aspect of normal growth and development has halted. Such an arrest can affect any aspect of development--physical, intellectual or emotional. Global delay is diagnosed when all areas of development are impaired.
In children, developmental arrest is failure to gain accepted milestones--including social and psychological milestones--on time. In teenagers, it may involve failure to attain puberty; in adults, inability to handle emotions or empathise with others.
Arrested sexual development is usually caused by eating disorders, irritable bowel disease, or side effects of stimulant medications. It may be chromosomal---for example Turner syndrome, which affects girls, halting growth and preventing puberty. Arrested social development occurs with autism, ADHD and personality disorders. These conditions have genetic components. Global delay is usually chromosomal, as in fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Rett's syndrome or Angelman syndrome. It can also result from metabolic disorders.
Speech delay in early childhood is the most common indicator for most developmental disorders. Other indicators include motor difficulties and problems with toileting, avoiding eye contact, not developing empathy, laughing inappropriately and not exhibiting fear or pain.
Concerns are justified if babbling and crawling have not begun by 12 months or talking and walking by two years. Puberty is considered arrested if development has not begun by 13, or menstruation by 16.
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- "A Parents Guide to Developmental Delays"; Laurie LeComer; 2006
- "How to Detect Developmental Delay and What to Do Next"; Mary Mountstephen; 2010
- "Tears and Triumphs: A Look into the World of Children with Down Syndrome and Other Developmental Delays"; Valentine Dmitriev; 1997